Offshore FREE RADIO STATIONS

K-I-N-G (1259 kHz, 1965)
This station transmitted from an abandoned fort (left-over of WW II). When they didn't have the success they expected, the station was restyled into Radio 3-9-0 (broadcasting on 755 kHz), subtitled something like "EVE, woman's radio", programming above all easy-listening music.
Radio Antwerpen (around 1500 kHz, November 1962)
This station broadcast from the MV "Uilenspiegel", which is why it is most referred to as "Radio Uilenspiegel". The founder, George de Caluwe, had his own private radiostation before WW2 ("Radio Het Kerkske"), but after WW II the Belgian authorities decided no private stations would be allowed. After the success of Radio Veronica in the Netherlands, De Caluwe decided to also go offshore. His broadcasts started on October 10, 1962. The Belgian authorities soon made plans to raid the ship, but that proved unnecessary. De Caluwe died on December 13, 1962 and the ship lost anchor in a gale on December 16, 1962.
Radio Atlanta (1493 kHz, 1964)
This station (broadcasting from the MV «Mi Amigo») didn't have a long independent life. Before long they merged with Radio Caroline. One of the ships moved to the Isle of Man, to broadcast from there as Radio Caroline North, the other one remained in the North Sea as Radio Caroline South.
Radio Caroline (from MV «Caroline») (1520 kHz -if I remember well-, 1964)
This is probably the Offshore station with the longest active history. They begun broadcasting on Easter Sunday 1964 and stayed on the air (with some long interruptions) up to 1989 and -legally- were last heard in the summer of 1997 with a RSL (Restricted Service License) from their MV «Ross Revenge» from the Isle of Sheppey.
Radio England (1313 kHz -if my memory serves me well-, May 3, 1966, 15:30 UTC)
This station operated from M/V "Laissez-Faire" off Harwick on the British North Sea coast. It had a very American format with lots of hits (it nicknamed itself «Your Much More Music Station»), but didn't find its place in the market, so that after a couple of months it disappeared, leaving its frequency (and transmitters) to a Dutch-language radio-station with a similar format, Radio 2-2-7.
Also operating from the same ship was Britain Radio (broadcasting on 854 kHz), with a quieter format: most of all easy-listening music, and it had various jingles calling it «Hallmark of Quality» (their jingles were later heard on BBC Radio 2 (the former BBC "Light Service"). This station lasted until the introduction of the Marine Offences Act on August 14, 1967.
Radio Essex (1349 kHz, 1966)
This station transmitted from one of the abandoned WW II forts in the Thames estuary.
Radio Mi Amigo (953 kHz, March 3, 197., edited jingles)
This station transmitted from the MV "Mi Amigo", home of Radio Caroline, and actually sort of kept Radio Caroline on the air, financially speaking. The station's headquarters were in Platja d'Aro in Girona, Spain.
Radio Noordzee (1964)
This station had established itself on an old oil rig in the North Sea off The Hague. They also transmitted TV-programs (under the name «TV Noordzee», on channel E11) which were very popular, as in many cases this was the first time people in the Netherlands could see popular series such as «Mr. Ed», «The Saint» and «Dr. Kildare». Unfortunately they did not live long. The Dutch government invented a trick to silence them, by admitting that they were indeed outside the Dutch territorial waters, but that the rig stood on the Dutch part of the continental flat, so one morning they were raided by the Dutch marines. The Dutch public broadcaster TROS is what remains of Radio- and TV Noordzee.
Radio Northsea International (1349 kHz, early 1970's)
This offshore station broadcast from the MV «Mebo 2» from a mooring off the Dutch coast on Medium Wave 1359 kHz, on frequencies just off the 49 and 31 meter bands and on VHF. During day-times the programs were in Dutch, in the night in English. This clipping consists of a number of jingles recorded in the early 1970's.
Radio Scotland (1241 kHz, 1966)
This station broadcast from a mooring off the Scottish coast from an overhauled former lightship, the MV «Comet».
Radio Veronica (1562 kHz, December 14, 1968, 13:00 GMT)
This station began broadcasting in the early 1960's as VRON (Vrije Radio Omroep Nederland), but soon changed its name into Veronica. Whereas the Netherlands at first didn't seem too eager to ratify the international agreement against offshore radio-ventures, this changed when one of the Veronica managers had a bomb placed on the Radio Northsea vessel. This prompted the Dutch government to issue legislation against stations broadcasting from the International Waters. This makes Radio Veronica the first radio station to break the monopoly of public broadcasting in the Netherlands and at the same time the prime reason for measures (in the Netherlands) against broadcasts from the sea: They were outlawed in the Netherlands as per August 31, 1974

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